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Liquid Oxygen Plant...Introduction1

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Liquid Oxygen Plant...Introduction1

Post by abdo2005 on Wed Oct 05, 2011 5:32 am

Introduction

Oxygen:
Oxygen has been known to the scientists from as early as the 3rd and 4th centuries. The Chinese were the first to detect its presence as an essential element in the atmosphere without which life and combustion is not possible.
It combines with hydrogen forming water covering around 70% of earth crust combine with various metals and nonmetals to be present in around 99% of rocks. Overall oxygen constitutes 49.2%of the mass of the earth and 23.2%of the atmosphere is oxygen.


PROPERTIES
 OXYGEN IN LIQUID STATE : It is a pale steel blue, transparent and very mobile liquid
Boiling point : -182.020C
Density at boiling point: 1.14gm/cc
Surface tension at B.P. : 13074 dynes/cm
It is a non conductor of electricity and strongly magnetic when compared to iron.

 OXYGEN IN GASEOUS STATE: It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas, a volume of it slightly heavier than equal volume of air
One Liter of oxygen under standard condition weighs 1.42901gm and the corresponding weight of air is 1.2929gm. The oxygen is only slightly soluble in water at ordinary temperature and pressures

 Thermo physical properties:
Gas at 1 atm :
Density (0): 1.42908gm/lit
Density (21.11): 1.327gm/lit
Density at B.P: 4.467gm/lit
Density at triple point: 0.0108
Viscosity, at 250: 206.39 mili poise
 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES:
 Action of oxygen with hydrogen:
oxygen and hydrogen at an ambient temperature when activated by a catalyst such as platinum metal, forms water.

2H2 O2 = 2H2O

 Action of oxygen on metals:
all metals react with oxygen, although not with same rate or the same energy.

 Action of metals on non metals: oxygen reacts directly with all the non metals although direct action often is not the most effective way of producing oxide. Even fluorine forms a compound with oxygen, OF2




 USES:
 Iron and steel applications:

Around 98%pure oxygen is needed in steel industry for blast furnace to enrich the air from 21%normal oxygen to 26%. It is required for cutting and welding and for scarfing billets, for this purpose oxygen should be 99.5% pure
 In chemical industry:

oxygen is used in the manufacturing of synthetic materials such as acetylene, ethyline oxide, methanol, acrolein, hydrogen peroxide, titaniumdioxide etc.
Also find its wide application in waste water treatment.
 Oxygen for cutting purposes:

oxygen cutting of ferrous metals into shapes for fabrication is practiced on a large scale, in this technique the metal is heated first by means of a fuel oxygen torch to the point of combustion &then a narrow, high velocity(1500ft/sec or more)stream of oxygen is introduced through the center of the flame. It is used that oxygen should be of high purity of 99.55 or better.

 Oxygen in life support systems:
The development of high fly commercial aircraft, recent projects to explore both inner and outer space require oxygen in the life support systems.
Moreover under the sea as well as well above the sea level in the mountains oxygen cylinders are needed. In the medical applications, oxygen cylinders are employed almost routinely for patients suffering respiratory function &represent the most frequent contact of the patient with medical oxygen.
Use of oxygen in pediatrics incubator has been an important factor in increasing the survival rate of premature infants.
Modern anesthesia routinely uses oxygen as a component of the gaseous mixture, herby overcoming the diluting effects of gaseous mixture, herby overcoming the diluting effects of gaseous anesthetics & ensuring an adequate supply for life support.



The up coming post will be (process description)
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abdo2005
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